A Selection of the Most Common Clinical Conditions



In this process, fats and calcium are deposited in the arterial wall and the artery is first narrowed and finally closed off as part of a gradual process. Blood clots that form at such calcifications can also cause sudden vessel occlusion.

Stroke and heart attack are the best-known consequences of a circulatory disorder, because sensitive organs such as the heart and brain need a lot of oxygen.

Circulatory disorders of the legs or arms are particularly noticeable in situations that involve work or exertion for the body. If arm or leg muscles are undersupplied, cramp-like pain typically develops.

Harmful influences of so-called risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, nicotine, high cholesterol, lack of exercise and stress greatly accelerate the disease process of atherosclerosis. Very often, several of these harmful influences are present at the same time.

You can slow or stop atherosclerosis by taking the following steps:

  • See your family doctor regularly!

Have your blood pressure, blood sugar, fat and uric acid levels checked regularly. Report changes and new complaints to your doctor in detail. 

  • Stop smoking!

It is now proven beyond doubt that smoking is one of the most aggressive risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis.    

  • More movement!

Especially if the arterial blood flow is not yet so advanced, regular, consistent and intensive walking training can do more than some medications. Specific, regular training can cause the small vessels around the narrowed vessel to dilate, allowing more oxygen-rich blood to be transported to the muscles. However, this requires a certain amount of time and, above all, regular training. For more motivation, join a vascular sports group.

  • Eat right!

Make sure you eat a sensible, balanced and low-fat diet. In addition, you should also always drink sufficient amounts of water.



Aneurysm is the widening of an artery (aorta). This enlargement can occur in all regions of the body. It most frequently affects the abdominal aorta. The main risk is that an aneurysm will suddenly burst, causing internal bleeding. Other risks include the formation of blood clots in the aneurysm, which can lead to acute vascular occlusion in subsequent organs. Most aneurysms are caused by vascular calcification (arteriosclerosis). The most common risk factors are high blood pressure, lipid metabolism disorders, obesity and smoking. In addition, a hereditary predisposition is also observed.


Abdominal aortic aneurysm

The abdominal aorta is the most common location for dilatation of the arteries.

At a certain size or appearance of the aneurysm, further control examinations and, if necessary, preventive surgery are performed. There are two different procedures for this:

  • In conventional or open surgery, the abdomen is opened. Above and below the vasodilatation, the blood vessel is clamped, opened longitudinally, and a vascular prosthesis is sewn in as a replacement. After the blood flow is released, the original vessel wall is placed back around the prosthesis to protect the surrounding organs and sutured.
  • The so-called endovascular procedure with the stent prosthesis. Here, a wire-reinforced prosthesis is inserted into the aneurysm from the inside via the inguinal artery. The procedure is gentler because the abdominal cavity is not opened. A disadvantage is regular, often lifelong monitoring. While open surgery is possible in all cases, a stent prosthesis is only suitable in certain cases.

The recovery period lasts 2-3 weeks after treatment with a stent prosthesis and 6-8 weeks for open surgery. Until then, walking is the best method to become fit again. Lifting heavy loads (more than 5 kg) should be avoided for 3 months to prevent scar herniation. Risk factors such as smoking, elevated blood lipids, diabetes, obesity and others should definitely be controlled by you and your family doctor.

Your doctor will discuss with you which surgical procedure is suitable for you.


Carotid stenosis - narrowing of the carotid artery

If there is a high-grade constriction of the carotid artery and symptoms of a transient circulatory disorder of the brain are detected, then carotid artery surgery should be performed. This is preceded by a detailed assessment by a specialized neurologist.

How is an operation performed?

The operation takes place under local anesthesia or, in special cases, under general anesthesia. The carotid artery is exposed via a small incision in the neck and the constriction is then peeled out. Depending on the findings, a small "patch" (so-called patchplasty) is sewn in or the carotid artery is sewn shut directly. During the operation, the cerebral hemorrhage can be continuously monitored via certain measurements in order to detect circulatory disturbances in time. Overall, this is a low-complication procedure that can very effectively save patients from the dire consequences of a stroke. The inpatient stay in the clinic is only a few days.

What happens after the operation?

Surgery is only part of the therapy. Basically, all other diseases and risk factors for arteriosclerosis (smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, elevated blood lipids and increased body weight) must be stopped or treated with medication. In addition, lifelong blood thinning is recommended. The choice of medication is made individually by the treating physician according to the clinical picture.


pAVK- Peripheral artery occlusive disease

The peripheral artery occlusive disease (pAVK) is mainly (95%) a secondary disease of the arteriosclerosis (arteriosclerosis) in the legs. Calcification of the arteries causes narrowing (stenosis) of the arteries, which leads to circulatory problems in the legs. These circulatory disturbances cause discomfort when walking, forcing sufferers to stop after a certain walking distance. If the disease progresses, pain can occur even at rest. Even amputation can be imminent.

The main cause of peripheral artery occlusive disease is arterial calcification. The development of calcification is promoted by nicotine consumption, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure (arterial hypertension) and lipometabolic disorders. Disease due to heredity is rare.

In the presence of peripheral artery occlusive disease, it is very likely that other vessels in the body are also calcified and further narrowing is present. The risk of heart attack and stroke is increased in any case

The treatment depends on many factors such as stage, secondary diseases or previous surgeries. In general, different forms of treatment can be applied.

In the early stages of the disease, medications are used to try to promote blood flow. In the advanced stage, blood flow must usually be restored surgically. There are various methods for this, such as vascular dilatation with or without a stent (metal mesh), calcification and dilatation plastic surgery, bypass or treatment with medication. Which treatment is best depends on the extent of the disease and the location of the vasoconstrictions.

Your attending vascular surgeon will advise you on the best treatment method.

The long-term success of treatment depends largely on how consistently you tackle your risk factors. After all, how long a vessel remains open is largely determined by the progression of arteriosclerosis!

It is best to avoid the risk factors for atherosclerosis..

That means no nicotine use and make sure you eat healthy and exercise.

Keep Moving!


Last Modification: 16.11.2021 - Contact Person:

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